Critical Analysis of Newly Introduced Science Curriculum vs Previous Science
Curriculum at SSC Level in NWFP
Education is a process through which the inner potentialities of the individuals of a generation are developed in a desirable direction according to the philosophy, ideology and aspiration of a nation or country. Curriculum and instructions are used to achieve the goals, aims and objectives of education. Curricula are the experiences provided to the individuals for achieving the goals, aims and objectives of education by using instructions and pedagogy. So, curriculum is a means or path to achieve the goals, aims and objectives of education.
We are living in a world which had acquired the shape and structure of a global village due to advances in science and technology particularly in information technology. Due to this globalized impact of education the whole world is in a dilemma of changing their education and curricula as well as instructional methods, procedures, strategies and techniques to keep pace with the new trends, needs, challenges and developments. Pakistan, in this context, is having no exception. Our country has faced the same dilemma and has tried to solve the problem by bringing changes in education system through curricula and instructional procedures from time to time, since independence in 1947.
Each and every change requires evaluation and feedback, so is the case with curriculum. Therefore, the researcher in this study has tried to evaluate and critically analyze the newly introduced science curriculum vs the previous science curriculum, in order, to find the strength and weakness of the existing science curriculum, to provide feedback to the planner for improvement, and to revise the new or forthcoming curriculum in the light of the suggestions and recommendations forwarded by the researchers keeping in view indigenous requirements of the country.
Hence, in this context the problem selected for the study was: to critically analyze the newly introduced science curriculum (2004 onward) vs the previous science curriculum at SSC level in NWFP. The new Science curriculum was introduced in 2004 while the previous one was in vogue since 2001.
The purpose of the study was to find strengths and weaknesses upto the level which was significantly different, to suggest measures for improvement and to forward recommendations for “the forthcoming new” or “to be revised” science curriculum at SSC level in NWFP.
The objectives of the study included: the study of the impact of new science curriculum vs the previous science curriculum on overall students’ achievement and to critically analyze the changes through the opinions / survey of the Principals, Headmasters / Headmistresses and science teachers.
The main null hypothesis of the study formulated was that there was significant difference in the newly introduced science curriculum vs the previous one on the basis of changes in contents, activities, facilities, teaching methods, evaluation and examination but having no significantly different impact on students’ achievement of the new curriculum versus the previous one.
The study was conducted in two parts: In Part-I, the study was conducted through documentary analyses and gazette books notifications of BISE Swat for the years: 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 annual examinations, while in Part-II, the study was conducted on the basis of research tools of questionnaires which were developed through the consultation and experts opinion of the advisor / supervisor of the study and validated through pilot study.
The gazette books were obtained from Government High School, Naway Kalay, where the researcher himself was a science teacher at SSC level. The questionnaires were distributed, discussed with the respondents and collected personally by the researcher through the visits of each school selected randomly in district Swat.
The population of the study was delimited to the government and private schools of district Swat for which a sample of 113 schools, both High and Higher Secondary government and private (boys and girls), were selected on random sampling out of the total 290 schools in the district.
The data were collected, analyzed, presented and interpreted for drawing findings and conclusions. To test the hypotheses, t-statistics and chi-square statistics were used as standard statistical procedures of the study for finding the significant differences.
The data were analyzed, interpreted and summarized for drawing the findings and conclusions. The final conclusion of the study was to prove the null hypothesis that:
Ho: There was significant difference in the contents, activities, facilities, teaching methods and evaluation or examination but these changes have no significant impact on the overall achievements of the students at SSC level in BISE examinations in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa.
At the end, the researcher presented his suggestions and recommendations for the development of new science curriculum in the country on the basis of indigenous research.
The suggestions and recommendations included:
The new curriculum of science: physics, chemistry and biology should be revised in such a way that it must be interested, activity based, according to the mental level and according to academic year or time duration. It should also be according to the global needs of the country and new demands of the 21st century in the competitive world of science and technology.
Click Here to Download